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Global Gender History

These are my favourite books on global gender history.

*Under construction*

Suggestions are welcome!

The Origins of the Patriarchy

  • Alesina, Alberto, Paola Giuliano, and Nathan Nunn. 2013. ‘On the Origins of Gender Roles: Women and the Plough’. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128(2):469–530.

  • Amadiume, Ifi. 1989. Male Daughters, Female Husbands: Gender and Sex in an African Society. London: Zed Books Ltd.

  • Boserup, Ester. 2013. Woman’s Role in Economic Development. London: Routledge.

  • Brewer, Carolyn. 2004. Shamanism, Catholicism, and Gender Relations in Colonial Philippines, 1521-1685. Ashgate.

  • Buss, David M. 2016. The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. Basic Books.

  • Coontz, Stephanie, and Peta Henderson. 1986. Women’s Work, Men’s Property: The Origins of Gender and Class. London: Verso.

  • Demie, Muse Gadisa. 2018. Cereals and Gender Roles: A Historical Perspective. SSRN ID 3176346. 

  • Dickemann, Mildred. 1979. ‘The Ecology of Mating Systems in Hypergynous Dowry Societies’. Social Science Information 18(2):163–95.

  • Ebenstein, Avraham. 2021. The Historical Origins of Son Preference: Patrilocality and Missing Women. SSRN ID 3829406. 

  • Engels, Friedrich. 2021. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. Verso.

  • Etienne, Mona, and Eleanor Burke Leacock. 1980. Women and Colonization: Anthropological Perspectives. Praeger.

  • Gimbutas, Marija. 1989. The Language of the Goddess: Unearthing the Hidden Symbols of Western Civilization. San Francisco: HarperCollins.

  • Hamilton, Sue, Ruth D. Whitehouse, and Katherine I. Wright, eds. 2007. Archaeology and Women: Ancient and Modern Issues. Walnut Creek, Calif: Routledge.

  • Hansen, Casper Worm, Peter Sandholt Jensen, and Christian Volmar Skovsgaard. 2015. ‘Modern Gender Roles and Agricultural History: The Neolithic Inheritance’. Journal of Economic Growth 20(4):365–404.

  • Hartmann, Heidi I. 1979. ‘The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Towards a More Progressive Union’. Capital & Class 3(2):1–33.

  • Hooven, Carole. 2021. Testosterone: The Story of the Hormone That Dominates and Divides Us. Cassell.

  • Hudson, Valerie M., Donna Lee Bowen, and Perpetua Lynne Nielsen. 2020. The First Political Order: How Sex Shapes Governance and National Security Worldwide. Columbia University Press.

  • Iversen, Torben, and Frances Rosenbluth. 2010. Women, Work, and Politics: The Political Economy of Gender Inequality. Yale University Press.

  • Jordan-Young, Rebecca M. 2019. Testosterone: An Unauthorized Biography. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  • Lamphere, Louise. 2016. Feminist Anthropology Engages Social Movements: Theory, Ethnography, and Activism. Rutgers University Press.

  • Leacock, Eleanor Burke. 2008. Myths of Male Dominance : Collected Articles on Women Cross-Culturally. Chicago: Haymarket books.

  • Nashat, Guity. 2008. ‘Women in the Middle East, 8000 BCE to 1700 CE’. Pp. 227–48 in A Companion to Gender History, edited by T. A. Meade and M. E. Wiesner-Hanks.

  • Nelson, Sarah Milledge. 2014. Shamans, Queens, and Figurines: The Development of Gender Archaeology. Walnut Creek, California: Routledge.

  • Ortner, Sherry B. 1982. Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Gender and Sexuality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Sacks, Karen. 1979. Sisters and Wives: The Past and Future of Sexual Equality: Westport: Praeger.

  • Saidi, Christine. 2021. ‘A History of African Women from Origins to 800 CE: Bold Grandmas, Powerful Queens, Audacious Entrepreneurs’. in The Palgrave Handbook of African Women’s Studies, edited by O. Yacob-Haliso and T. Fayola. Palgrave.

  • Smuts, Barbara. 1995. ‘The Evolutionary Origins of Patriarchy’. Human Nature 6(1):1–32.

  • Whitehouse, Ruth D. 2007. ‘Gender Archaeology and Archaeology of Women: Do We Need Both?’ in Archaeology and Women, edited by S. Hamilton, R. D. Whitehouse, and K. I. Wright. Routledge.

  • Wood, Wendy, and Alice H. Eagly. 2002. ‘A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Behavior of Women and Men: Implications for the Origins of Sex Differences’. Psychological Bulletin 699–727.

East Asia

Molony, Barbara; Choi, Hyaeweol; Theiss, Janet (2016) Gender in Modern East Asia (Westview Press). This is an excellent overview of how gender relations have changed over the past 500 years. If you are new to East Asia, START HERE.

Liu, Jieyu and Yamashita, Junko (2020) Routledge Handbook of East Asian Gender Studies (Routledge). A very good edited collection, spanning family life, work and unpaid care, feminist activism, cultural representations, masculinities, and resistance against militarism.

Choi, Hyeweol (2013) New Women in Colonial Korea: A Sourcebook (Routledge). This is rather unusual: a collection of original sources, showcasing the debates over 'New Women' (autonomy, self-realisation etc). See also 'Debating the New Korean Woman'.

Yoo, Theodore Jun (2014) The Politics of Gender in Colonial Korea (California UP).  In the early 1900s, women were obliged to obey their fathers, husbands, and sons. Elite women were strictly monitored and secluded. Women were ignorant, men were learned. Few women had access to education. Yoo assesses whether colonialism advanced gender equality. Spoiler: no. Actually it was Protestant missionaries that established schools for girls, and this inspired girls' love of learning, as well as more autonomous ideas of self-realisation.

Tsurumi, E. Patricia (1990) Factory Girls: Women in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan (Princeton UP). Japanese factories sought cheap, docile, female labour in order to become internationally competitive. Heavily indebted poor rural families were sometimes tricked by recruiters. Conditions were horrific. A vivid account.

Kung, Lydia (1995) Factory Women in Taiwan (Columbia UP). By the 1970s, female factory work had become common and widely accepted. But fathers still signed daughters' contracts. They had very limited economic autonomy. To me, this is a very important text: it shows how patriarchal gender relations fifty years ago, and thus how incredible it is that Taiwan's gender pay gap now rivals the USA's.

Bailey, Paul (2012) Women and Gender in Twentieth Century China (Macmillan).

Hershatter, Gail (2014) The Gender of Memory: Rural Women and China's Collective Past (California UP). At the turn of the twentieth century, girls' feet were broken and bound, so they could barely walk let alone run. If visitors called, and only a woman was there, she might answer 'no one is home'. These two books detail how gender relations have since changed. There are many others (e.g. by Croll, Honig, Stacey and Judd), but Bailey provides a particularly clear and comprehensive overview.

Jacka, Tamara (2005) Rural Women in Urban China: Gender, Migration, and Social Change (East Gate). Factory work was gruelling and grim. But by migrating to cities and earning their own incomes, Chinese women's expanded their social networks, increased their economic autonomy, and gained self-esteem.

Thornton, Arland and Lin, Hui-Sheng (1994) Social Change and the Family in Taiwan (Chicago UP). Presents quantitative data about marriage and family life for couples married in the 1950s, 60s, 70s, and 80s. To me, this is very strong evidence of Modernisation Theory: more education, non-familial employment, and urban-residence are progressively associated with greater economic autonomy and weaker kinship ties.

Brinton, Mary C. (ed.) (2002) Women's Working Lives in East Asia (Stanford UP, Chapter 1).

Yu, Wei-Hsin (2009) Gendered Trajectories: Women, Work, & Social Change in Japan & Taiwan (Stanford UP). Taiwan's gender relations are much more egalitarian than its neighbours. Both books suggests this is due to (i) its larger public sector; (ii) unmet demand for highly skilled workers; (iii) the prevalence of small and medium enterprises, which sought to recruit and retain scarce skilled labour, so better accommodated married women workers. Workplace flexibility reduced the gender wage gap. In addition, I would emphasise the importance of activism, upon democratisation.

Nemoto, Kumiko (2016) Too Few Women at the Top: The Persistence of Inequality in Japan (Cornell UP). Nemoto suggests that Japan is caught in a negative feedback loop. Large firms see men as more competent and more reliable, so recruit them for the career track. Educated women are treated as subservient assistants, sent on errands for male colleagues. Even if women do aspire for managerial roles, they struggle to manage social expectations of intensive mothering as well as employers' demands for long work days.

Hong-Fincher, Leta (2014) Leftover Women: The Resurgence of Gender Inequality in China (Zed Books). Details how Confucianism and authoritarianism have reinforced patriarchal dominance and the gender wealth gap, notwithstanding women's scarcity and employment. Read alongside studies of Korea and Taiwan (below) to realise the importance of democratisation, in enabling feminist resistance.

Dong, Xiao-Yuan and Joffre, Veronica Mendizabal (2019) Inclusive Growth in the People’s Republic of China: A Deep Look at Men and Women’s Work Amid Demographic, Technological, and Structural Transformations (ADB). The gender pay gap increased over the 1990s and 2000s - due to marketisation and industrialisation. Men disproportionately benefited from the boom in construction and capital-intensive manufacturing. With cuts to public nurseries, men were also favoured as more reliable, productive workers. Hence their earnings increased. Women were constrained by care burdens and the offshoring of low-end manufacturing. Even if women had degrees, they still faced discrimination. But this paper suggests China has now turned the corner!! There's been a huge expansion of higher-paid jobs in education, health & social services, as well as banking and finance. Women are benefitting from this rising demand for white-collar workers!!, So the gender pay gap among young, educated workers is now closing!!

Jung, Kyungja (2014) Practicing Feminism in South Korea: The women’s movement against sexual violence (Routledge).

Jones, Nicola (2006) Gender and the Political Opportunities of Democratization in South Korea (Palgrave). Women's economic advancement often enables feminist activism. Hence it is surprising that Korea (with its large gender pay gap) has such a strong feminist movement. These two books help us understand gains made: challenging sexual harassment, securing gender quotas, and repealing Family Law, and securing parental leave. Though personally I think they downplay South Korea's especially adversarial, militant labour movement, which may have inspired similar feminist struggles (unlike Japan, which has a more muted movement).

Chang, Doris T. (2009) Women's Movements in Twentieth-Century Taiwan (Illinois UP). Feminism is not new to Taiwan. In the 1920s and 1970s, urban, educated, and internationally-travelled women published and promoted ideas of female autonomy, self-realisation, and gender equality. But their activism was constrained by economic dependence and martial law. With democratisation, Taiwanese feminists ceased to self-censor. Capitalising on their strong labour market position, they formed organisations, became more assertive, and mobilised for reform. They pushed courts to overturn patrilineal family law, secured government action on sexual harassment, and all-party commitment to gender quotas.

South Asia

Historical overviews

Mughal rule



Caste & Gender

Traditional agriculture & long-run effects on gender relations


Female seclusion

  • Chowdhry, Prem (1993) Persistence of a Custom: Cultural Centrality of Ghunghat, Social Scientist Vol. 21, No. 9/1

  • Jeffery, Patricia (1979) Frogs in a Well: Indian Women in Purdah (Zed Books);

  • Kantor, Paula (2002) ‘Female Mobility in India: The Influence of Seclusion Norms on Economic Outcomes’. International Development Planning Review; Liverpool 24(2): 145–59.

  • Mandelbaum, David (1986) 'Sex Roles and Gender Relations in North India', Economic & Political Weekly (& his book).

  • Minturn, Leigh (1993) Sita's Daughters: Coming Out of Purdah: The Rajput Women of Khalapur Revisited (OUP).

  • Papanek, Hanna (1973) ‘Purdah: Separate Worlds and Symbolic Shelter. Comparative Studies in Society and History 15(3): 289–325.


Why is female labour force participation falling across India?

How is the garment industry transforming gender relations in Bangladesh?

Women's property rights




Sex ratios

Intimate Partner Violence and Honour Killings

'Eve Teasing', Street Harassment, & Sexual Assault at Work

Cross-cousin marriage



  • Bhayat, Sabera. 2017. ‘A Historical Perspective on Polygamy and Muslim Personal Law Reform in India’. Sabera Bhayat. Retrieved 7 January 2021

  • Brulé, Rachel E. 2020. Women, Power, and Property: The Paradox of Gender Equality Laws in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Carroll, Lucy. 1983. ‘The Muslim Family in India: Law, Custom, and Empirical Research’. Contributions to Indian Sociology 17(2):205–22.

  • Ghosh, Partha S. 2018. The Politics of Personal Law in South Asia : Identity, Nationalism and the Uniform Civil Code. Routledge India.

  • Grover, Shalini. 2017. Marriage, Love, Caste and Kinship Support: Lived Experiences of the Urban Poor in India. 1st edition. Routledge.

  • Hasan, Zoya, and Ritu Menon. 2006. Unequal Citizens: A Study of Muslim Women in India. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Jejeebhoy, Shireen J., and Zeba A. Sathar. 2001. ‘Women’s Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region’. Population and Development Review 27(4):687–712.

  • Jones, Justin. 2020. ‘Towards a Muslim Family Law Act? Debating Muslim Women’s Rights and the Codification of Personal Laws in India’. Contemporary South Asia 28(1):1–14.

  • Jones, Justin. 2021. ‘“Acting upon Our Religion”: Muslim Women’s Movements and the Remodelling of Islamic Practice in India’. Modern Asian Studies 55(1):40–74.

  • Kaur, Lakshmi Devi, Manvinder. 2019. ‘Purdah or Ghunghat, a Powerful Means to Control Women: A Study of Rural Muslim and Non-Muslim Women in Western Uttar Pradesh, India - Lakshmi Devi, Manvinder Kaur, 2019’. Indian Journal of Gender Studies.

  • Khan, Sameera. 2007. ‘Negotiating the Mohalla: Exclusion, Identity and Muslim Women in Mumbai’. Economic and Political Weekly 42(17):1527–33.

  • Kirmani, Nida. 2013. Questioning the ‘Muslim Woman’: Identity and Insecurity in an Urban Indian Locality. 1st edition. London: Routledge India.

  • Kumar, Megha. 2016. Communalism and Sexual Violence in India: The Politics of Gender, Ethnicity and Conflict. First Edition. London; New York, NY: I.B.Tauris.

  • Lateef, Shahida. 1990. Muslim Women in India: Political and Private Realities, 1890s-1980s. Zed Books.

  • Lemons, Katherine. 2010. ‘At the Margins of Law: Adjudicating Muslim Families in Contemporary Delhi’. UC Berkeley.

  • Lindberg, Anna. 2009. ‘Islamisation, Modernisation, or Globalisation? Changed Gender Relations among South Indian Muslims’. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 32(1):86–109.

  • Mullally, Siobhan. 2004. ‘Feminism and Multicultural Dilemmas in India: Revisiting the Shah Bano Case’. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 24(4):671–92.

  • Niaz, Noorjehan Safia, and Zakia Soman. 2015. ‘Muslim Women’s Views on Muslim Personal Law (No. of Pages: 4)’. Economic & Political Weekly, December 19.

  • Parashar, Archana. 1992. Women and Family Law Reform in India: Uniform Civil Code and Gender Equality. 1st edition. Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd.

  • Robinson, Rowena. 2010. ‘Boundary Battles: Muslim Women and Community Identity in the Aftermath of Violence’. Women’s Studies International Forum 33(4):365–73.

  • Tschalaer, Mengia Hong. 2017. Muslim Women’s Quest for Justice: Gender, Law and Activism in India. Cambridge University Press.

  • Vatuk, Sylvia. 2008. ‘Islamic Feminism in India: Indian Muslim Women Activists and the Reform of Muslim Personal Law’. Modern Asian Studies 42(2/3):489–518.

  • Vatuk, Sylvia. 2013. ‘The “Women’s Court” in India: An Alternative Dispute Resolution Body for Women in Distress’. The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 45(1):76–103.


Feminist Activism

  • Khan, Ayesha (2018) ‘The Women's Movement in Pakistan: Activism, Islam and Democracy” (IB Tauris).

  • Chowdhury, Elora Halim. 2011. Transnationalism Reversed: Women Organizing against Gendered Violence in Bangladesh. Albany: SUNY Press.

  • Kabeer, Naila, and Munshi Sulaiman. 2015. ‘Assessing the Impact of Social Mobilization: Nijera Kori and the Construction of Collective Capabilities in Rural Bangladesh’. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 16(1):47–68.

  • Narain, Vrinda. 2008. Reclaiming the Nation: Muslim Women and the Law in India. Toronto Ont. ; Buffalo [N.Y.]: University of Toronto Press.

  • Tschalaer, Mengia Hong. 2017. Muslim Women’s Quest for Justice: Gender, Law and Activism in India. Cambridge University Press.

Female Political Representation 

Gender relations, broadly

Latin America & the Caribbean


Historical overviews

O’Connor, Erin E. 2014. Mothers Making Latin America: Gender, Households, and Politics Since 1825. Wiley

Chant, Sylvia, and Nikki Craske. 2002. Gender in Latin America. London: Latin America Bureau.

Dore, Elizabeth, and Maxine Molyneux. 2000. Hidden Histories of Gender and the State in Latin America. Duke University Press.


Kinship & the family

Carlos, Manuel L., and Lois Sellers. 1972. ‘Family, Kinship Structure, and Modernization in Latin America. Latin American Research Review 7(2): 95–124.

Collier, George A. 1978. The Determinants of Highland Maya Kinship’. Journal of Family History 3(4): 439–53.

De Vos, Susan M. 1995. Household Composition in Latin America. Springer Science

Deere, Carmen Diana. 1978. ‘The Differentiation of the Peasantry and Family Structure: A Peruvian Case Study’. Journal of Family History 3(4): 422–38.

Kuznesof, Elizabeth Anne. 1989. The History of the Family in Latin America: A Critique of Recent Work’ eds. Diana Balmori et al. Latin American Research Review 24(2): 168–86.

Kuznesof, Elizabeth Anne. 2018. Household Economy And Urban Development: Sao Paulo 1765-1836. Routledge.

Kuznesof, Elizabeth, and Robert Oppenheimer. 1985. ‘The Family and Society in Nineteenth-Century Latin America: An Historiographical Introduction. Journal of Family History 10(3): 215–34.

Wainerman, Catalina H. 1978. ‘Family Relations in Argentina: Diachrony and Synchrony’: Journal of Family History 3(4): 410–421. (March 9, 2020).

Nazzari, Muriel. 1990. ‘Parents and Daughters: Change in the Practice of Dowry in São Paulo (1600-1770)’. Hispanic American Historical Review 70(4): 639–65.

Socolow, Susan Migden. 2015. The Women of Colonial Latin America. CUP

Safa, Helen. 2005. ‘The Matrifocal Family and Patriarchal Ideology in Cuba and the Caribbean’. Journal of Latin American Anthropology 10(2): 314–38.


Kampwirth, Karen. 2002. Women and Guerrilla Movements: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chiapas, Cuba. Penn State Press.

Lutjens, Sheryl L. 1995. ‘Reading Between the Lines: Women, the State, and Rectification in Cuba. Latin American Perspectives 22(2): 100–124.

Viterna, Jocelyn. 2013. Women in War: The Micro-Processes of Mobilization in El Salvador. OUP


The Cuban Revolution

Andaya, Elise. 2014. Conceiving Cuba: Reproduction, Women, and the State in the Post-Soviet Era. Rutgers UP.

Hynson, Rachel. 2020. Laboring for the State: Women, Family, and Work in Revolutionary Cuba, 1959–1971. CUP

Johanna I. Moya Fábregas. 2010. ‘The Cuban Woman’s Revolutionary Experience: Patriarchal Culture and the State’s Gender Ideology, 1950–1976. Journal of Women’s History 22(1): 61–84.

Toro-Morn, Maura I., Anne R. Roschelle, and Elisa Facio. 2002. Gender, Work, and Family in Cuba: The Challenges of the Special Period’. Journal of Developing Societies 18(2–3): 32–58. 

Safa, Helen. 2009. ‘Hierarchies and Household Change in Postrevolutionary Cuba’. Latin American Perspectives 36(1): 42–52.

Rural economies

Deere, Carmen Diana. 1982. ‘The Division of Labor by Sex in Agriculture: A Peruvian Case Study’. Economic Development and Cultural Change 30(4): 795–811.

Deere, Carmen Diana. 1995. What Difference Does Gender Make? Rethinking Peasant Studies’. Feminist Economics 1(1): 53–72.

Deere, Carmen Diana. 2005. The Feminization of Agriculture? Economic Restructuring in Rural Latin America | UNRISD.

Deere, Carmen Diana. 2017. Women’s Land Rights, Rural Social Movements, and the State in the 21st-Century Latin American Agrarian Reforms. Journal of Agrarian Change 17(2): 258–78.

Katz, Elizabeth. 2003. The Changing Role of Women in the Rural Economies of Latin America’. FAO.


Rural-urban migration

Brumer, Anita. 2008. ‘Gender Relations in Family-Farm Agriculture and Rural-Urban Migration in Brazil’. Latin American Perspectives 35(6): 11–28.

Lawson, Victoria A. 1998. ‘Hierarchical Households and Gendered Migration in Latin America: Feminist Extensions to Migration Research. Progress in Human Geography 22(1): 39–53.

Radcliffe, Sarah A. 1991. ‘The Role of Gender in Peasant Migration: Conceptual Issues from the Peruvian Andes’. Review of Radical Political Economics 23(3–4): 129–47.


Falling fertility

Guzmán, José Miguel. 1991. The Onset of Fertility Decline in Latin America. | ECLAC

Martin, Teresa Castro, and Fatima Juarez. 1995. ‘The Impact of Women’s Education on Fertility In Latin America: Searching for Explanations’. International Family Planning Perspectives 21(2): 52–80.

Potter, Joseph E., Carl P. Schmertmann, Renato M. Assunção, and Suzana M. Cavenaghi. 2010. Mapping the Timing, Pace, and Scale of the Fertility Transition in Brazil’. Population and Development Review 36(2): 283–307.

Rosero-Bixby, Luis, Teresa Castro-Martín, and Teresa Martín-García. 2009. ‘Is Latin America Starting to Retreat from Early and Universal Childbearing?’ Demographic Research 20: 169–94.

Social policy

Molyneux, Maxine. 2002. ‘Gender and the Silences of Social Capital: Lessons from Latin America’. Development and Change 33(2): 167–88.Molyneux, Maxine. 2006. ‘Mothers at the Service of the New Poverty Agenda: Progresa/Oportunidades, Mexico’s Conditional Transfer Programme. Social Policy & Administration 40(4): 425–49.


Rising female employment

Arceo-Gomez, Eva, and Raymundo Campos-Vazquez. 2010. Labor Supply of Married Women in Mexico: 1990-2000. El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos. Serie documentos de trabajo del Centro de Estudios Económicos.

Busso, Matias, and Dario Romero Fonesca. 2015. ‘Determinants of Female Labor  Force Participation. In Bridging Gender Gaps? The Rise and Deceleration of Female Labor Force Participation in Latin America.

Chioda, Laura. 2016. Work and Family: Latin American and Caribbean Women in Search of a New Balance. World Bank.

Filgueira, Fernando, and Juliana Martínez Franzoni. 2017. ‘The Divergence in Women’s Economic Empowerment: Class and Gender under the Pink Tide’. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 24(4): 370–98.

Gómez-Galvarriato, Aurora, and Lucía Madrigal. 2016. ‘Women’s Labor Force Participation in Mexico During the 20th Century: Childbearing and Career Decisions’. In Gender Inequalities and Development in Latin America During the Twentieth Century, eds. María Magdalena Camou, Silvana Maubrigades, and Rosemary Thorp. Routledge.

Raynolds, Laura T. 1998. ‘Harnessing Women’s Work: Restructuring Agricultural and Industrial Labor Forces in the Dominican Republic’. Economic Geography 74(2):

Youssef, Nadia H. 1972. ‘Differential Labor Force Participation of Women in Latin American and Middle Eastern Countries: The Influence of Family Characteristics’. Social Forces 51(2): 135–53.

Serrano, Joaquín, Leonardo Gasparini, Mariana Marchionni, and Pablo Glüzmann. 2020. ‘Economic Cycle and Deceleration of Female Labor Force Participation in Latin America. IDB working paper.

Chant, Sylvia. 1991. Women and Survival in Mexican Cities: Perspectives on Gender, Labour Markets and Low-Income Households. Manchester UP.

Rocha, Mercedes González de la. 2007. The Construction of the Myth of Survival’. Development and Change 38(1): 45–66.

Gaddis, Isis, and Janneke Pieters. 2012. Trade Liberalization and Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Brazil. Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

Mendez, Jennifer Bickham. 2005. From the Revolution to the Maquiladoras: Gender, Labor, and Globalization in Nicaragua. Duke University Press.

Pieters, Janneke. 2018. ‘Trade Liberalization and Gender Inequality. IZA World of Labor.

Safa, Helen I. 1995. The Myth Of The Male Breadwinner: Women And Industrialization In The Caribbean. Westview Press.

Salzinger, Leslie. 2003. Genders in Production. UC Press.


Alvarez, Sonia E. 1990. Engendering Democracy in Brazil: Women’s Movements in Transition Politics. Princeton

Anderson, Cora Fernández. 2020. Fighting for Abortion Rights in Latin America: Social Movements, State Allies and Institutions. Routledge.

Baldez, Lisa. 2010. Why Women Protest: Women’s Movements in Chile. CUP.

Blofield, Merike, and Christina Ewig. 2017. The Left Turn and Abortion Politics in Latin America’. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 24(4): 481–510.

Blofield, Merike. 2012. Care Work and Class: Domestic Workers’ Struggle for Equal Rights in Latin America. Pennsylvania State University Press.

Borland, Elizabeth, and Barbara Sutton. 2007. ‘Quotidian Disruption and Women’s Activism in Times of Crisis, Argentina 2002-2003’. Gender & Society 21(5): 700–722.

Chaney, Elsa, and Mary Garcia Castro. 1991. Muchachas No More: Household Workers in Latin America and the Caribbean. Temple UP

Corcoran-Nantes, Yvonne. 2003. Female Consciousness or Feminist Consciousness?: Women’s Consciousness Raising in Community-Based Struggles in Brazil’. In Feminist Theory Reader, Routledge, 126–37.

Díez, Jordi. 2013. ‘Explaining Policy Outcomes: The Adoption of Same-Sex Unions in Buenos Aires and Mexico City’. Comparative Political Studies 46(2): 212–35.

Drogus, Carol Ann, and Hannah Stewart-Gambino. 2007. Activist Faith. Penn State UP

Fuentes, María Luisa Sánchez, Jennifer Paine, and Brook Elliott-Buettner. 2008. The Decriminalisation of Abortion in Mexico City: How Did Abortion Rights Become a Political Priority?’ Gender & Development 16(2): 345–60.

Htun, Mala Nani. 2003. Sex and the State: Abortion, Divorce, and the Family Under Latin American Dictatorships and Democracies. CUP

Lopreite, Debora. 2014. ‘Explaining Policy Outcomes in Federal Contexts: The Politics of Reproductive Rights in Argentina and Mexico’. Bulletin of Latin American Research 33(4): 389–404.

Roggeband, Conny. 2016. Ending Violence against Women in Latin America: Feminist Norm Setting in a Multilevel Context’. Politics & Gender 12(1): 143–67.

Rousseau, Stéphanie, and Anahi Morales Hudon. 2017. Indigenous Women’s Movements in Latin America: Gender and Ethnicity in Peru, Mexico, and Bolivia. Palgrave.

Safa, Helen Icken. 1990. ‘Women’s Social Movements In Latin America. Gender & Society 4(3): 354–69.

Sardenberg, Cecília M. B. 2012. ‘Negotiating Culture in the Promotion of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Latin America’. IDS Working Papers 2012(407): 1–44.

Schroeder, Kathleen. 2006. ‘A Feminist Examination of Community Kitchens in Peru and Bolivia’. Gender, Place & Culture 13(6): 663–68.

Sutton, Barbara. 2020. ‘Intergenerational Encounters in the Struggle for Abortion Rights in Argentina. Women’s Studies International Forum 82: 102392.


Quotas & political representation

Funk, Kendall D, Magda Hinojosa, and Jennifer M Piscopo. 2017. ‘Still Left Behind: Gender, Political Parties, and Latin America’s Pink Tide’. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 24(4): 399–424.

Piatti-Crocker, Adriana. 2019. ‘The Diffusion of Gender Policy in Latin America: From Quotas to Parity’. Journal of International Women’s Studies 20(6): 44–59..

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2015. ‘States as Gender Equality Activists: The Evolution of Quota Laws in Latin America’. Latin American Politics and Society 57(3): 27–49.

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2016. ‘Democracy as Gender Balance: The Shift from Quotas to Parity in Latin America. Politics, Groups, and Identities 4(2): 214–30.

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2020. ‘When Do Quotas in Politics Work? Latin America Offers Lessons.’ Americas Quarterly.

Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. 2010. Political Power and Women’s Representation in Latin America. OUP

Htun, Mala. 2015. Inclusion without Representation in Latin America. CUP


Persistent Inequalities

Rogers, Ashley. 2020. ‘“But the Law Won’t Help Us”: Challenges of Mobilizing Law 348 to Address Violence Against Women in Bolivia’. Violence Against Women 26(12–13): 1471–92

Radcliffe, Sarah A. 2015. ‘Dilemmas of Difference: Indigenous Women and the Limits of Postcolonial Development Policy’.


Middle East & North Africa


Ancient Civilisations

  • Flannery, Kent, and Joyce Marcus. 2012. The Creation of Inequality. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  • Frangipane, Marcella. 2018a. ‘Different Trajectories in State Formation in Greater Mesopotamia: A View from Arslantepe (Turkey)’. Journal of Archaeological Research 26(1):3–63. 

  • Frangipane, Marcella. 2018b. ‘From a Subsistence Economy to the Production of Wealth in Ancient Formative Societies: A Political Economy Perspective’. Economia Politica 35(3):677–89. 8-0133-3.

  • Michel, Cécile. 2020. Women of Assur and Kanesh: Texts from the Archives of Assyrian Merchants. Atlanta: SBL Press.

  • Nifosi, Ada. 2019. Becoming a Woman and Mother in Greco-Roman Egypt: Women’s Bodies, Society and Domestic Space. Routledge.

  • Olabarria, Leire. 2020. Kinship and Family in Ancient Egypt: Archaeology and Anthropology in Dialogue. Cambridge University Press.

  • Pomeroy, Sarah B. 1990. Women in Hellenistic Egypt: From Alexander to Cleopatra. Wayne State University Press.

  • Tyldesley, Joyce. 1995. Daughters of Isis: Women of Ancient Egypt. Penguin.

The Arab Conquests, Caliphates and Early Islam

  • Ahmed, Leila. 1993. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. Yale University Press.

  • Ali, Kecia. 2010. Marriage and Slavery in Early Islam. Harvard University Press.

  • Ayubi, Zahra. 2019. Gendered Morality: Classical Islamic Ethics of the Self, Family, and Society. Columbia University Press.

  • Bennison, Amira K. 2011. The Great Caliphs: The Golden Age of the Abbasid Empire. London: I.B.Tauris.

  • Cheikh, Nadia Maria El. 2015. Women, Islam, and Abbasid Identity. Harvard University Press.

  • El-Hibri, Tayeb. 2021. The Abbasid Caliphate: A History. Cambridge University Press.

  • Gabbay, Alyssa. 2020. Gender and Succession in Medieval and Early Modern Islam: Bilateral Descent and the Legacy of Fatima. London : I.B. Tauris.

  • Hoyland, Robert G. 2014. In God’s Path: The Arab Conquests and the Creation of an Islamic Empire. Oxford : Oxford University Press.

  • Kennedy, Hugh. 2015. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century. New York ; London: Routledge.

  • Michalopoulos, Stelios, Alireza Naghavi, and Giovanni Prarolo. 2018. ‘Trade and Geography in the Spread of Islam’. The Economic Journal 128(616):3210–4

  • Rapoport, Yossef. 2007. Marriage, Money and Divorce in Medieval Islamic Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Historical Political Economy 

  • Anderson, Lisa. 1986. The State and Social Transformation in Tunisia and Libya, 1830-1980. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Harris, Kevan. 2016. ‘Making and Unmaking of the Greater Middle East’. New Left Review.

  • Kuran, Timur. 2010. How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East. Princeton. 

  • Kuru, Ahmet. 2019. Islam, Authoritarianism, and Underdevelopment: A Global and Historical Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Masri, Safwan. 2017. Tunisia: An Arab Anomaly. Columbia University Press.

  • Rubin, Jared. 2017. Rulers, Religion, and Riches: Why the West Got Rich and the Middle East Did Not. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

The Ottoman Empire

  • Hathaway, Jane. 2008. The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule: 1516-1800. Harlow: Routledge.

  • Keddie, Nikki R. 2006. Women in the Middle East: Past and Present. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Metinsoy, Elif Mahir. 2017. Ottoman Women during World War I. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

  • Peirce, Leslie. 2003. Morality Tales: Law and Gender in the Ottoman Court of Aintab. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

  • Semerdijan, Elyse. 2008. ‘Off the Straight Path’: Illicit Sex, Law, and Community in Ottoman Aleppo. Syracuse University Press.

  • Tucker, Judith E. 1985. Women in Nineteenth-Century Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


  • BBaylouny, Anne Marie. 2010. Privatizing Welfare in the Middle East: Kin Mutual Aid Associations in Jordan and Lebanon. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

  • Charrad, Mounira M. 2001. State and Women’s Rights: The Making of Postcolonial Tunisia, Algeria,  and  Morocco. Berkeley, University of California Press.

  • Dubetsky, Alan. 1976. ‘Kinship, Primordial Ties, and Factory Organization in Turkey: An Anthropological View’. International Journal of Middle East Studies 7(3):433–51.

  • El-Said, Hamed, and Jane Harrigan. 2009. ‘“You Reap What You Plant”: Social Networks in the Arab World—The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan’. World Development 37(7):1235–49. 

  • Korotayev, Andrey. 2000. Parallel-Cousin (FBD) Marriage, Islamization, and Arabization. Ethnology, 39(4): 395-407.

  • Joseph, Suad. 1999. Intimate Selving in Arab Families: Gender, Self and Identity. Indexed edition. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

  • Joseph, Suad. 2011. ‘Political Familism in Lebanon’. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 636(1):150–63.

  • Sholkamy, Hania. 2008. ‘Why Kin Marriages? Rationales in Rural Upper Egypt’. Pp. 155–66 in Family in the Middle East:  Ideational change in Egypt, Iran and Tunisia. Routledge.

Judaism and Christianity

  • Khater, Akram F. 2001. Inventing Home: Emigration, Gender, and the Middle Class in Lebanon, 1870-1920. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Krakowski, Eve. 2018. Coming of Age in Medieval Egypt: Female Adolescence, Jewish Law, and Ordinary Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Blaydes, Lisa, and Melina R. Platas. 2020. ‘Religion, Family Structure, and the Perpetuation of Female Genital Cutting in Egypt’. Journal of Demographic Economics 86(3):305–28.

The Islamic Revival

  • Akyol, Mustafa. 2021. Reopening Muslim Minds: A Return to Reason, Freedom, and Tolerance. New York: St Martins Essentials.

  • Brooke, Steven. 2019. Winning Hearts and Votes: Social Services and the Islamist Political Advantage. Cornell University Press.

  • Binzel, Christine, and Jean-Paul Carvalho. 2017. ‘Education, Social Mobility and Religious Movements: The Islamic Revival in Egypt’. The Economic Journal 127(607):2553–80.

  • Cesari, Jocelyne. 2014. The Awakening of Muslim Democracy: Religion, Modernity, And The State. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Freer, Courtney. 2018. Rentier Islamism: The Influence of the Muslim Brotherhood in Gulf Monarchies. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Göçmen, Ipek. 2014. ‘Religion, Politics and Social Assistance in Turkey: The Rise of Religiously Motivated Associations’. Journal of European Social Policy 24(1):92–103. 

  • Guirguis, Max. 2012. ‘Islamic Resurgence and Its Consequences in the Egyptian Experience’. Mediterranean Studies 20(2):187–226. 

  • Gurses, Mehmet. 2015. ‘Islamists and Women’s Rights: Lessons from Turkey’. The Journal of the Middle East and Africa 6(1):33–44. 

  • Güneş-Ayata, Ayşe, and Gökten Doğangün. 2017. ‘Gender Politics of the AKP: Restoration of a Religio-Conservative Gender Climate’. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 19(6):610–27. 

  • Shukrallah, Hala. 1994. ‘The Impact of the Islamic Movement in Egypt’. Feminist Review 47:15–32.

  • White, Jenny B. 2002. Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study in Vernacular Politics. University of Washington Press.

  • Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky. 2002. Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt. Columbia University Press.


  • Ahmed, Leila. 2012. A Quiet Revolution: The Veil’s Resurgence, from the Middle East to America. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Aksoy, Ozan, and Diego Gambetta. 2016. ‘Behind the Veil: The Strategic Use of Religious Garb’. European Sociological Review 32(6):792–806. 

  • Carvalho, Jean-Paul. 2013. ‘Veiling’. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128(1):337–70. 

  • Diwan, Ishac, and Jeni Klugman. 2016. Patterns of Veiling Among Muslim Women.  Economic Research Forum.

  • Macleod, Arlene. 1990. Accommodating Protest: Working Women, the New Veiling, and Change in Cairo. New York: Columbia University Press.

Arab Economies

  • Diwan, Ishac, Philip Keefer, and Marc Schiffbauer. 2015. Pyramid Capitalism: Political Connections, Regulation, and Firm Productivity in Egypt. The World Bank.

  • Francis, David C., Sahar Sajjad Hussain, and Marc Tobias Schiffbauer. 2018. Do Politically Connected Firms Innovate, Contributing to Long-Term Economic Growth ? Policy Research Working Paper Series. 8502. The World Bank.

  • Hertog, Steffen. 2020. ‘Segmented Market Economies in the Arab World: The Political Economy of Insider–Outsider Divisions’. Socio-Economic Review 

  • Schiffbauer, Marc Tobias, Abdoulaye Sy, and Sahar Hussain. 2014. Jobs or Privileges: Unleashing the Employment Potential of the Middle East and North Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publications.

Gender Norms and Expectations

  • Abu–lughod, Lila. 2016. Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society. University of California Press.

  • Al-Khayyat, Sana. 2001. Honour and Shame: Women in Modern Iraq. London: Saqi Books.

  • Badran, Margot. 1996. Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. Princeton University Press.

  • Elliot, Katja Žvan. 2015. Modernizing Patriarchy The Politics of Women’s Rights in Morocco. Austin: University of Texas Press.

  • El-Kholy, Heba. 2002. Defiance and Compliance: Negotiating Gender in Low-Income Cairo. New York: Berghan Books

  • Elliot, Katja Žvan. 2015. Modernizing Patriarchy The Politics of Women’s Rights in Morocco. Austin: University of Texas Press.

  • Ghannam, Farha. 2013. Live and Die Like a Man: Gender Dynamics in Urban Egypt. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

  • Hashemi, Manata. 2020. Coming of Age in Iran. New York University Press.

  • Hoodfar, Homa. 1997. Between Marriage and the Market. University of California Press.

  • Kandiyoti, Deniz. 1988. Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender & Society 2(3).

  • Lundvall, Jonna Maria, Carmen De Paz Nieves, Samantha M. Constant, and Aziz Atamanov. 2017. Progress towards Gender Equality in the Middle East and North Africa Region. The World Bank.

  • Ismail, Salwa. 2006. Political Life in Cairo’s New Quarters: Encountering the Everyday State. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

  • Mernissi, Fatima 1987. Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in a Modern Muslim Society: Male-Female Dynamics in Modern Muslim Society.  Bloomington: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Moghadam, Valentine M. 2013. Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

  • Moors, Annelies. 1996. Women, Property and Islam: Palestinian Experiences, 1920-1990: 3. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Nabli, Mustapha Kamel, and Nadereh Chamlou. 2004. Gender and Development in the Middle East and North Africa : Women in the Public Sphere. The World Bank.

  • Newcomb, Rachel. 2006. ‘Gendering the City, Gendering the Nation: Contesting Urban Space in Fes, Morocco’. City & Society 18(2):288–311

  • Rubenberg, Cheryl A. 2001. Palestinian Women: Patriarchy and Resistance in the West Bank. Boulder, Co: Lynne Rienner.

  • Sonbol, Amira El-Azhary. 2002. Women of Jordan: Islam, Labor and the Law. Annotated edition. Syracuse, N.Y: Syracuse University Press.

  • Yount, Kathryn M., Kristin E. VanderEnde, Sylvie Dodell, and Yuk Fai Cheong. 2016. ‘Measurement of Women’s Agency in Egypt: A National Validation Study’. Social Indicators Research 128(3):1171–92. 

Female Employment

  • Bahramitash, Roksana, and Hadi Salehi Esfahani. 2011. Veiled Employment: Islamism and the Political Economy of Women’s Employment in Iran. Syracuse University Press.

  • Dedeoglu, Saniye. 2007. Women Workers in Turkey: Global Industrial Production in Istanbul. London: I.B. Tauris.

  • Dedeoğlu, Saniye. 2010. ‘Visible Hands – Invisible Women: Garment Production in Turkey’. Feminist Economics 16(4):1–32. 

  • Dildar, Yasemin. 2021. ‘Gendered Patterns of Industrialization in MENA’. Middle East Development Journal.

  • Erman, Tahire. 1997. ‘The Meaning of City Living for Rural Migrant Women and Their Role in Migration: The Case of Turkey’. Women’s Studies International Forum 20(2):263–73.

  • Erman, Tahire, Sibel Kalaycıoğlu, and Helga Rittersberger-Tılıç. 2002. ‘Money-Earning Activities and Empowerment Experiences of Rural Migrant Women in the City: The Case of Turkey’. Women’s Studies International Forum 25(4):395–410. 

  • Esfahani, Hadi Salehi, and Parastoo Shajari. 2012. ‘Gender, Education, Family Structure, and the Allocation of Labor in Iran’. Middle East Development 

  • Gender in a Rural Turkish Society’. The International Migration Review: IMR 28(3):554. 

  • Hammad, Hanan. 2016. Industrial Sexuality: Gender, Urbanization, and Social Transformation in Egypt. University of Texas Press.

  • İlkkaracan, İpek. 2012. ‘Why so Few Women in the Labor Market in Turkey?’ Feminist Economics 18(1):1–37

  • Joslin, Knut-Eric, and Frode Martin Nordvik. 2021. ‘Does Religion Curtail Women during Booms? Evidence from Resource Discoveries’. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 187:205–24.

  • Kocabicak, Ece. 2021. ‘Gendered Property and Labour Relations in Agriculture: Implications for Social Change in Turkey’. Oxford Development Studies 0(0):1–23.

  • Kızılca, F. Kemal. 2016. ‘Breaking with Dogma: Unorthodox Consumption Patterns and Women’s Labor Market Outcomes in Turkey’. Feminist Economics 22(4):1–30. 

  • Korotayev, Andrey V., Leonid M. Issaev, and Alisa R. Shishkina. 2015. ‘Female Labor Force Participation Rate, Islam, and Arab Culture in Cross-Cultural Perspective’. Cross-Cultural Research 49(1):3–19

  • Kraft, Caroline, Ragui Assaad, and Caitlyn Keo. 2019. ‘The Evolution of Labor Supply in Egypt from 1988-2018: A Gendered Analysis’. Economic Research Forum (ERF).

  • Majbouri, Mahdi. 2016. ‘Against the Wind: Labor Force Participation of Women and Economic Instability in Iran’. Feminist Economics 22(4):31–53

  • Majbouri, Mahdi. 2019. ‘Twins, Family Size and Female Labour Force Participation in Iran’. Applied Economics 51(4):387–97

  • Miles, Rebecca. 2002. ‘Employment and Unemployment in Jordan: The Importance of the Gender System’. World Development 30(3):413–27. 

  • Nazier, Hanan, and Racha Ramadan. 2018. ‘Ever Married Women’s Participation in Labor Market in Egypt: Constraints and Opportunities’. Middle East Development Journal 10(1):119–51

  • Ozler, Sule. 2000. ‘Export Orientation and Female Share of Employment: Evidence from Turkey’. World Development 28(7):1239–48

  • Poya, Maryam. 1999. Women, Work and Islamism: Ideology and Resistance in Iran. 1st edition. London ; New York: Zed Books Ltd.

  • Sarıoğlu, Esra. 2013. ‘Gendering the Organization of Home-Based Work in Turkey: Classical versus Familial Patriarchy’. Gender, Work & Organization 20(5):479–97. 

  • Spierings, Niels. 2014. ‘The Influence of Patriarchal Norms, Institutions, and Household Composition on Women’s Employment in Twenty-Eight Muslim-Majority Countries’. Feminist Economics 20(4):87–112. 

  • Spierings, Niels, Jeroen Smits, and Mieke Verloo. 2010. ‘Micro- and Macrolevel Determinants of Women’s Employment in Six Arab Countries’. Journal of Marriage and Family 72(5):1391–1407. 

  • Sugur, N., and S. Sugur. 2005. ‘Gender and Work in Turkey: Case Study on Women Workers in the Textile Industry in Bursa’. Middle Eastern Studies 41(2):269–79. 

  • White, Jenny B. 2004. Money Makes Us Relatives: Women’s Labor in Urban Turkey. New York: Routledge.

  • Youssef, Nadia H. 1972. ‘Differential Labor Force Participation of Women in Latin American and Middle Eastern Countries: The Influence of Family Characteristics’. Social Forces 51(2):135–53. 

Gender-based Violence

  • Payton, Joanne. 2019. Honor and the Political Economy of Marriage: Violence against Women in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

  • Tizro, Zahra. 2011. Domestic Violence in Iran: Women, Marriage and Islam. Abingdon: Routledge.

Feminist Activism

  • Çağatay, Selin. 2018. ‘Women’s Coalitions beyond the Laicism-Islamism Divide in Turkey: Towards an Inclusive Struggle for Gender Equality?’ Social Inclusion 6(4):48–58. 

  • Charrad, Mounira Maya. 2015. ‘Progressive Law: How It Came about in Tunisia Women in the Revolution: Gender and Social Justice after the Arab Spring’. Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice (2):351–60.

  • Dogangün, Gökten Huriye. 2019. Gender Politics in Turkey and Russia: From State Feminism to Authoritarian Rule. I.B. Tauris.

  • El‐Mahdi, Rabab. 2010. ‘Does Political Islam Impede Gender‐Based Mobilization? The Case of Egypt’. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 11(3–4):379–96

  • El‐Masri, Samar. 2015. ‘Tunisian Women at a Crossroads: Cooptation or Autonomy?’ Middle East Policy 22(2):125–44. 

  • Eltantawy, Nahed. 2018. ‘“I Am Untouchable!” Egyptian Women’s War Against Sexual Harassment’. Pp. 131–48 in Arab Women’s Activism and Socio-Political Transformation: Unfinished Gendered Revolutions, edited by S. Khamis and A. Mili. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

  • Htun, Mala, and S. Laurel Weldon. 2015. ‘Religious Power, the State, Women’s Rights, and Family Law’. Politics & Gender 11(3):451–77.

  • Kandiyoti, Deniz. 2019. ‘Against All Odds:: The Resilience and Fragility of Women’s Gender Activism in Turkey’. Pp. 80–100 in Gender, Governance and Islam, edited by D. Kandiyoti, N. Al-Ali, and K. S. Poots. Edinburgh University Press.

  • Jad, Islah. 2018. Palestinian Women’s Activism: Nationalism, Secularism, Islamism. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press.

  • Tucker, Judith E. 2008. Women, Family, and Gender in Islamic Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Mili, Amel. 2018. ‘Citizenship and Gender Equality in the Cradle of the Arab Spring’. pp. 27–52 in Arab Women’s Activism and Socio-Political Transformation Unfinished Gendered Revolutions, edited by S. Khamis and A. Mili. London: Palgrave.

  • Moghadam, Valentine M. 2020. ‘Gender Regimes in the Middle East and North Africa: The Power of Feminist Movements’. Social Politics: 27(3):467–85. 

  • Mohammadi, Majid. 2019. The Iranian Reform Movement: Civil and Constitutional Rights in Suspension. Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Salime, Zakia. 2011. Between Feminism and Islam: Human Rights and Sharia Law in Morocco: Minneapolis: University Of Minnesota Press.

  • Tadros, Mariz. 2020. ‘Negotiating Women in Egypt’s Post-Mubarak Constitutions (2012–2014)’. Politics & Gender 16(1):145–73. 

  • Tekil, Decile Burcu. 2020. ‘Women’s Movement in Iran: A Comparative Study of the Reformist Era and the Green Movement’. Thesis. Middle East Technical University.

  • Tripp, Aili Mari. 2019. Seeking Legitimacy: Why Arab Autocracies Adopt Women’s Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Ün, Marella Bodur. 2019. ‘Contesting Global Gender Equality Norms: The Case of Turkey’. Review of International Studies 45(5):828–47.


The Iranian Revolution

  • Arjmand, Reza. 2016. Public Urban Space, Gender and Segregation: Women-Only Urban Parks in Iran. New York: Routledge.

  • Beck, Lois, and Guity Nashat. 2004. Women in Iran from 1800 to the Islamic Republic. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

  • Sedghi, Hamideh. 2007. Women and Politics in Iran: Veiling, Unveiling, and Reveiling. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Hegland, Mary. 2013. Days of Revolution: Political Unrest in an Iranian Village. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

  • Honarbin-Holliday, Mehri. 2013. Becoming Visible in Iran: Women in Contemporary Iranian Society.  London: I.B.Tauris.

  • Jahanshahrad, Houri. 2012. ‘A Genuine Civil Society and Its Implications for the Iranian Women’s Movement’. Women’s History Review 21(2):233–52.

  • Kurzman, Charles. 2008. ‘A Feminist Generation in Iran?’ Iranian Studies 41(3):297–321.

  • Moghissi, Haideh. 2008. ‘Islamic Cultural Nationalism and Gender Politics in Iran’. Third World Quarterly 29(3):541–54.

  • Osanloo, Arzoo. 2009. The Politics of Women’s Rights in Iran. Princeton University Press.

  • Shavarini, Mitra K. 2006. ‘The Role of Higher Education in the Life of a Young Iranian Woman’. Women’s Studies International Forum 29(1):42–53. 

  • Vakil, Sanam. 2012. Women and Politics in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Action and Reaction. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

The Arabian Peninsula

  • Al-Rasheed, Madawi. 2013. A Most Masculine State: Gender, Politics and Religion in Saudi Arabia: Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

  • Freer, Courtney. 2018. Rentier Islamism: The Influence of the Muslim Brotherhood in Gulf Monarchies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • James-Hawkins, Laurie, Yara Qutteina, and Kathryn M. Yount. 2017. ‘The Patriarchal Bargain in a Context of Rapid Changes to Normative Gender Roles: Young Arab Women’s Role Conflict in Qatar’. Sex Roles 77(3):155–68. 

  • Le Renard, Amelie. 2014. A Society of Young Women: Opportunities of Place, Power, and Reform in Saudi Arabia. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • Wikan, Unni. 1991. Behind the Veil in Arabia: Women in Oman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

The Kurdish Struggle

  • Çağlayan, Handan. 2019. Women in the Kurdish Movement: Mothers, Comrades, Goddesses.

  • Darden, Jessica Trisko, Alexis Henshaw, and Ora Szekely. 2018. Insurgent Women: Female Combatants in Civil WarsDevelopment Journal.

  • Dirik, Dilar. 2018. ‘The Revolution of Smiling Women: Stateless Democracy and Power in Rojava’. in Routledge Handbook of Postcolonial Politics. Routledge

  • McDowall, David. 2021. A Modern History of the Kurds.

  • Novellis, Andrea. 2018. ‘The Rise of Feminism in the PKK: Ideology or Strategy?’ Zanj: The Journal of Critical Global South Studies 2(1):115–33

Sub-Saharan Africa (incomplete and under construction!!)


Early History

  • Achebe, Nwando (2020) Female Monarchs and Merchant Queens in Africa. Ohio University Press. 

  • Akyeampong, Emmanuel, and Hippolyte Fofack. 2014. ‘The Contribution of African Women to Economic Growth and Development in the Pre-Colonial and Colonial Periods: Historical Perspectives and Policy Implications’. Economic History of Developing Regions 29(1):42–73.

  • Coquery-vidrovitch, Catherine, and Beth Raps. 2019. African Women: A Modern History. Routledge.

  • Osborn, Emily Lynn. 2011. Our New Husbands Are Here: Households, Gender, and Politics in a West African State from the Slave Trade to Colonial Rule. Athens, OH, UNITED STATES: Ohio University Press.

  • Robertson, Claire C. 1990. Sharing the Same Bowl: A Socioeconomic History of Women and Class in Accra, Ghana.  Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

  • Schmidt, Elizabeth. 1988. ‘Farmers, Hunters, and Gold-Washers: A Reevaluation of Women’s Roles in Precolonial and Colonial Zimbabwe’. African Economic History (17):45–80.

  • Sheldon, Kathleen. 2017. African Women: Early History to the 21st Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.



  • Shenk, Mary K., Ryan O. Begley, David A. Nolin, and Andrew Swiatek. 2019. ‘When Does Matriliny Fail? The Frequencies and Causes of Transitions to and from Matriliny Estimated from a de Novo Coding of a Cross-Cultural Sample’. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 374(1780)


  • Fenske, James. 2015. ‘African Polygamy: Past and Present’. Journal of Development Economics 117:58–73. 

  • Koos, Carlo, and Clara Neupert-Wentz. 2020. ‘Polygynous Neighbors, Excess Men, and Intergroup Conflict in Rural Africa’. Journal of Conflict Resolution 64(2–3):402–31.



  • Ali, Merima, Odd‐Helge Fjeldstad, and Abdulaziz B. Shifa. 2020. ‘European Colonization and the Corruption of Local Elites: The Case of Chiefs in Africa’. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 179:80–100. 

  • Allman, Jean. 1994. ‘Making Mothers: Missionaries, Medical Officers and Women’s Work in Colonial Asante, 1924-1945’. History Workshop Journal 38:23–47.

  • Hern, Erin A. 2021. ‘Colonial Education and Women’s Political Behavior in Ghana and Senegal’. African Studies Review 64(1):217–41

  • Korieh, Chima J. 2001a. ‘The Invisible Farmer? Women, Gender, and Colonial Agricultural Policy in the Igbo Region of Nigeria, c. 1913-1954’. African Economic History (29):117–62.

  • Lowes, Sara, and Eduardo Montero. 2021. ‘Concessions, Violence, and Indirect Rule: Evidence from the Congo Free State’.

  • Mbah, Ndubueze L. 2019. Emergent Masculinities: Gendered Power and Social Change in the Biafran Atlantic Age. Ohio University Press

  • Montgomery, Max. 2017. ‘Colonial Legacy of Gender Inequality: Christian Missionaries in German East Africa’. Politics & Society 45(2):225–68

  • Palagashvili, Liya. 2018. ‘African Chiefs: Comparative Governance under Colonial Rule’. Public Choice 174(3):277–300.

  • Tashjian, Victoria, and Jean Allman. 2002. ‘Marrying and Marriage on a Shifting Terrain: Recon¤gurations of Power and Authority in Early Colonial Asante’. in Women in African Colonial Histories, edited by J. Allman, N. Musisi, and S. Geiger.


  • Charles, Maria. n.d. ‘Gender Attitudes in Africa: Liberal Egalitarianism Across 34 Countries’. Social Forces.

  • Izugbara, Chimaraoke O., and Alex C. Ezeh. 2010. ‘Women and High Fertility in Islamic Northern Nigeria’. Studies in Family Planning 41(3):193–204.

  • Selhausen, Felix Meier zu. 2014. ‘Missionaries and Female Empowerment in Colonial Uganda: New Evidence from Protestant Marriage Registers, 1880–1945’. Economic History of Developing Regions 29(1):74–112. 


  • Baten, Joerg, Michiel de Haas, Elisabeth Kempter, and Felix Meier zu Selhausen. 2020. ‘Educational Gender Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Long-Term Perspective’.

  • Longwe, Sara Hlupekile. 1998. ‘Education for Women’s Empowerment or Schooling for Women’s Subordination?’ Gender & Development 6(2):19–26


Land Ownership

  • Gaddis, Isis, Rahul Suresh Lahoti, and Wenjie Li. 2018. Gender Gaps in Property Ownership in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank.

  • Ossome, Lyn. 2014. ‘Can the Law Secure Women’s Rights to Land in Africa? Revisiting Tensions Between Culture and Land Commercialization’. Feminist Economics 20(1):155–77.

Female Labour Force Participation

  • Anyanwu, John C. 2016. ‘Analysis of Gender Equality in Youth Employment in Africa’. African Development Review 28(4):397–415. 

  • Anyanwu, John C., and Darline Augustine. 2013. ‘Gender Equality in Employment in Africa: Empirical Analysis and Policy Implications’. African Development Review 25(4):400–420. 

  • Arbache, Jorge Saba, Ewa Filipiak, and Alexandre Kolev. 2010. Gender Disparities in Africa’s Labor Market. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

  • Boserup, Ester. 2013. Woman’s Role in Economic Development. London: Routledge.

  • Dieterich, Christine, Anni Huang, and Mr Alun H. Thomas. 2016. Women’s Opportunities and Challenges in Sub-Saharan African Job Markets. International Monetary Fund.

  • Kandiyoti, Deniz. 1988. ‘Bargaining with Patriarchy’. Gender and Society 2(3):274–90.

  • Seguino, Stephanie, and Maureen Were. 2014. ‘Gender, Development and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa’. Journal of African Economies 23(suppl_1):i18–61.

  • Wamboye, Evelyn F., and Stephanie Seguino. 2015. ‘Gender Effects of Trade Openness in Sub-Saharan Africa’. Feminist Economics 21(3):82–113.



  • Jordan Smith, Daniel. 2017. To Be a Man Is Not a One-Day Job: Masculinity, Money, and Intimacy in Nigeria.

Intimate Partner Violence

  • Bhalotra, Sonia R., Uma Kambhampati, Samantha B. Rawlings, and Zahra Siddique. 2020. Intimate Partner Violence: The Influence of Job Opportunities for Men and Women.

  • Cau, Boaventura M. 2017. ‘Area-Level Normative Social Context and Intimate Partner Physical Violence in Mozambique’. Journal of Interpersonal Violence

  • Krauser, Mario, Tim Wegenast, Gerald Schneider, and Ingeborg Hess Elgersma. 2019. ‘A Gendered Resource Curse? Mineral Ownership, Female Unemployment and Domestic Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa’. Zeitschrift Für Friedens- Und Konfliktforschung 8(2):213–37.

  • Medie, Peace. 2020. Global Norms and Local Action. OUP.

  • Uthman, Olalekan A., Stephen Lawoko, and Tahereh Moradi. 2010. ‘Sex Disparities in Attitudes towards Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Socio-Ecological Analysis’. BMC Public Health 10(1):223. 



  • Berry, Marie E. 2015. ‘From Violence to Mobilization: Women, War, and Threat in Rwanda*’. Mobilization: An International Quarterly 20(2):135–56.

  • Burnet, Jennie E. 2008. ‘Gender Balance and the Meanings of Women in Governance in Post-Genocide Rwanda’. African Affairs 107(428):361–86.

  • Burnet, Jennie E. 2011. ‘Women Have Found Respect: Gender Quotas, Symbolic Representation, and Female Empowerment in Rwanda’. Politics & Gender 7(3):303–34.

  • Hughes, Melanie M., and Aili Mari Tripp. 2015. ‘Civil War and Trajectories of Change in Women’s Political Representation in Africa, 1985–2010’. Social Forces 93(4):1513–40.

Political representation

  • Bauer, Gretchen. 2016. ‘“A Lot of Head Wraps”: African Contributions to the Third Wave of Electoral Gender Quotas’. Politics, Groups, and Identities 4(2):196–213.

  • Burnet, Jennie E. 2008. ‘Gender Balance and the Meanings of Women in Governance in Post-Genocide Rwanda’. African Affairs 107(428):361–86.

  • Burnet, Jennie E. 2011. ‘Women Have Found Respect: Gender Quotas, Symbolic Representation, and Female Empowerment in Rwanda’. Politics & Gender 7(3):303–34.

  • Bush, Sarah Sunn. 2011. ‘International Politics and the Spread of Quotas for Women in Legislatures’. International Organization 65(1):103–37.

  • Devlin, Claire, and Robert Elgie. 2008. ‘The Effect of Increased Women’s Representation in Parliament: The Case of Rwanda’. Parliamentary Affairs 61(2):237–54.

  • Edgell, Amanda B. 2017. ‘Foreign Aid, Democracy, and Gender Quota Laws’. Democratization 24(6):1103–41.

  • Hughes, Melanie M., and Aili Mari Tripp. 2015. ‘Civil War and Trajectories of Change in Women’s Political Representation in Africa, 1985–2010’. Social Forces 93(4):1513–40.

  • Kang, Alice. 2017. Bargaining for Women’s Rights: Activism in an Aspiring Muslim Democracy

  • Kang, Alice J., and Aili Mari Tripp. 2018. ‘Coalitions Matter: Citizenship, Women, and Quota Adoption in Africa’. Perspectives on Politics 16(1):73–91.

  • Matfess, Hillary 2017. Women and the War on Boko Haram: Wives, Weapons, Witnesses. ZedBooks.

  • Tripp, Aili Mari. 2015. Women and Power in Postconflict Africa. CUP.

  • Tripp, Aili Mari, Isabel Casimiro, Joy Kwesiga, and Alice Mungwa. 2008. African Women’s Movements: Transforming Political Landscapes. New York, Cambridge University Press.

My ethnographic research on the drivers of growing support for gender equality 

  • Cities as Catalysts of Gendered Social Change? Reflections from Zambia’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 2018. 108(4): 1096-111.

  • 'The Decline of the Male Breadwinner and Persistence of the Female Carer: exposure, interests and micro-macro interactions’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 2016. 106(5): 1135-1151.

  • ‘“For the Elections We Want Women!”: Closing the gender gap in Zambian politics’, Development and Change 47:2, 388-411.

  • Gender Sensitisation in the Zambian Copperbelt’, Geoforum, 2015. 59: 12-20.

  • History Lessons for Gender Equality from the Zambian Copperbelt, 1900-1990’, Gender, Place and Culture, 2015. 22(3): 344-362.

  • ‘“Women Can Do What Men Can Do”: The causes and consequences of flexibility in gender divisions of labour in Kitwe, Zambia’, Journal of Southern African Studies, 2014. 40(5): 991-998.

  • Co-education and the Erosion of Gender Stereotypes in the Zambian Copperbelt’, Gender & Development, 2014. 22:1, 75-90.

  • Looking for the One(s): Young love and urban poverty in The Gambia’ (with Sylvia Chant), Environment and Urbanization, 2010. 22(2): 353-369.

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