Global Gender History

These are my favourite books on global gender history.

*Under construction*

Suggestions are welcome!

East Asia

Molony, Barbara; Choi, Hyaeweol; Theiss, Janet (2016) Gender in Modern East Asia (Westview Press). This is an excellent overview of how gender relations have changed over the past 500 years. If you are new to East Asia, START HERE.

Liu, Jieyu and Yamashita, Junko (2020) Routledge Handbook of East Asian Gender Studies (Routledge). A very good edited collection, spanning family life, work and unpaid care, feminist activism, cultural representations, masculinities, and resistance against militarism.

Choi, Hyeweol (2013) New Women in Colonial Korea: A Sourcebook (Routledge). This is rather unusual: a collection of original sources, showcasing the debates over 'New Women' (autonomy, self-realisation etc). See also 'Debating the New Korean Woman'.

Yoo, Theodore Jun (2014) The Politics of Gender in Colonial Korea (California UP).  In the early 1900s, women were obliged to obey their fathers, husbands, and sons. Elite women were strictly monitored and secluded. Women were ignorant, men were learned. Few women had access to education. Yoo assesses whether colonialism advanced gender equality. Spoiler: no. Actually it was Protestant missionaries that established schools for girls, and this inspired girls' love of learning, as well as more autonomous ideas of self-realisation.

Tsurumi, E. Patricia (1990) Factory Girls: Women in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan (Princeton UP). Japanese factories sought cheap, docile, female labour in order to become internationally competitive. Heavily indebted poor rural families were sometimes tricked by recruiters. Conditions were horrific. A vivid account.

Kung, Lydia (1995) Factory Women in Taiwan (Columbia UP). By the 1970s, female factory work had become common and widely accepted. But fathers still signed daughters' contracts. They had very limited economic autonomy. To me, this is a very important text: it shows how patriarchal gender relations fifty years ago, and thus how incredible it is that Taiwan's gender pay gap now rivals the USA's.

Bailey, Paul (2012) Women and Gender in Twentieth Century China (Macmillan).

Hershatter, Gail (2014) The Gender of Memory: Rural Women and China's Collective Past (California UP). At the turn of the twentieth century, girls' feet were broken and bound, so they could barely walk let alone run. If visitors called, and only a woman was there, she might answer 'no one is home'. These two books detail how gender relations have since changed. There are many others (e.g. by Croll, Honig, Stacey and Judd), but Bailey provides a particularly clear and comprehensive overview.

Jacka, Tamara (2005) Rural Women in Urban China: Gender, Migration, and Social Change (East Gate). Factory work was gruelling and grim. But by migrating to cities and earning their own incomes, Chinese women's expanded their social networks, increased their economic autonomy, and gained self-esteem.

Thornton, Arland and Lin, Hui-Sheng (1994) Social Change and the Family in Taiwan (Chicago UP). Presents quantitative data about marriage and family life for couples married in the 1950s, 60s, 70s, and 80s. To me, this is very strong evidence of Modernisation Theory: more education, non-familial employment, and urban-residence are progressively associated with greater economic autonomy and weaker kinship ties.

Brinton, Mary C. (ed.) (2002) Women's Working Lives in East Asia (Stanford UP, Chapter 1).

Yu, Wei-Hsin (2009) Gendered Trajectories: Women, Work, & Social Change in Japan & Taiwan (Stanford UP). Taiwan's gender relations are much more egalitarian than its neighbours. Both books suggests this is due to (i) its larger public sector; (ii) unmet demand for highly skilled workers; (iii) the prevalence of small and medium enterprises, which sought to recruit and retain scarce skilled labour, so better accommodated married women workers. Workplace flexibility reduced the gender wage gap. In addition, I would emphasise the importance of activism, upon democratisation.

Nemoto, Kumiko (2016) Too Few Women at the Top: The Persistence of Inequality in Japan (Cornell UP). Nemoto suggests that Japan is caught in a negative feedback loop. Large firms see men as more competent and more reliable, so recruit them for the career track. Educated women are treated as subservient assistants, sent on errands for male colleagues. Even if women do aspire for managerial roles, they struggle to manage social expectations of intensive mothering as well as employers' demands for long work days.

Hong-Fincher, Leta (2014) Leftover Women: The Resurgence of Gender Inequality in China (Zed Books). Details how Confucianism and authoritarianism have reinforced patriarchal dominance and the gender wealth gap, notwithstanding women's scarcity and employment. Read alongside studies of Korea and Taiwan (below) to realise the importance of democratisation, in enabling feminist resistance.

Dong, Xiao-Yuan and Joffre, Veronica Mendizabal (2019) Inclusive Growth in the People’s Republic of China: A Deep Look at Men and Women’s Work Amid Demographic, Technological, and Structural Transformations (ADB). The gender pay gap increased over the 1990s and 2000s - due to marketisation and industrialisation. Men disproportionately benefited from the boom in construction and capital-intensive manufacturing. With cuts to public nurseries, men were also favoured as more reliable, productive workers. Hence their earnings increased. Women were constrained by care burdens and the offshoring of low-end manufacturing. Even if women had degrees, they still faced discrimination. But this paper suggests China has now turned the corner!! There's been a huge expansion of higher-paid jobs in education, health & social services, as well as banking and finance. Women are benefitting from this rising demand for white-collar workers!!, So the gender pay gap among young, educated workers is now closing!!

Jung, Kyungja (2014) Practicing Feminism in South Korea: The women’s movement against sexual violence (Routledge).

Jones, Nicola (2006) Gender and the Political Opportunities of Democratization in South Korea (Palgrave). Women's economic advancement often enables feminist activism. Hence it is surprising that Korea (with its large gender pay gap) has such a strong feminist movement. These two books help us understand gains made: challenging sexual harassment, securing gender quotas, and repealing Family Law, and securing parental leave. Though personally I think they downplay South Korea's especially adversarial, militant labour movement, which may have inspired similar feminist struggles (unlike Japan, which has a more muted movement).

Chang, Doris T. (2009) Women's Movements in Twentieth-Century Taiwan (Illinois UP). Feminism is not new to Taiwan. In the 1920s and 1970s, urban, educated, and internationally-travelled women published and promoted ideas of female autonomy, self-realisation, and gender equality. But their activism was constrained by economic dependence and martial law. With democratisation, Taiwanese feminists ceased to self-censor. Capitalising on their strong labour market position, they formed organisations, became more assertive, and mobilised for reform. They pushed courts to overturn patrilineal family law, secured government action on sexual harassment, and all-party commitment to gender quotas.

South Asia

Historical overviews

Mughal rule



Caste & Gender

Traditional agriculture & long-run effects on gender relations


Female seclusion

  • Chowdhry, Prem (1993) Persistence of a Custom: Cultural Centrality of Ghunghat, Social Scientist Vol. 21, No. 9/1

  • Jeffery, Patricia (1979) Frogs in a Well: Indian Women in Purdah (Zed Books);

  • Kantor, Paula (2002) ‘Female Mobility in India: The Influence of Seclusion Norms on Economic Outcomes’. International Development Planning Review; Liverpool 24(2): 145–59.

  • Mandelbaum, David (1986) 'Sex Roles and Gender Relations in North India', Economic & Political Weekly (& his book).

  • Minturn, Leigh (1993) Sita's Daughters: Coming Out of Purdah: The Rajput Women of Khalapur Revisited (OUP).

  • Papanek, Hanna (1973) ‘Purdah: Separate Worlds and Symbolic Shelter. Comparative Studies in Society and History 15(3): 289–325.


Why is female labour force participation falling across India?

How is the garment industry transforming gender relations in Bangladesh?

Women's property rights




Sex ratios

Intimate Partner Violence and Honour Killings

'Eve Teasing', Street Harassment, & Sexual Assault at Work

Cross-cousin marriage



  • Bhayat, Sabera. 2017. ‘A Historical Perspective on Polygamy and Muslim Personal Law Reform in India’. Sabera Bhayat. Retrieved 7 January 2021

  • Brulé, Rachel E. 2020. Women, Power, and Property: The Paradox of Gender Equality Laws in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Carroll, Lucy. 1983. ‘The Muslim Family in India: Law, Custom, and Empirical Research’. Contributions to Indian Sociology 17(2):205–22.

  • Ghosh, Partha S. 2018. The Politics of Personal Law in South Asia : Identity, Nationalism and the Uniform Civil Code. Routledge India.

  • Grover, Shalini. 2017. Marriage, Love, Caste and Kinship Support: Lived Experiences of the Urban Poor in India. 1st edition. Routledge.

  • Hasan, Zoya, and Ritu Menon. 2006. Unequal Citizens: A Study of Muslim Women in India. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Jejeebhoy, Shireen J., and Zeba A. Sathar. 2001. ‘Women’s Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region’. Population and Development Review 27(4):687–712.

  • Jones, Justin. 2020. ‘Towards a Muslim Family Law Act? Debating Muslim Women’s Rights and the Codification of Personal Laws in India’. Contemporary South Asia 28(1):1–14.

  • Jones, Justin. 2021. ‘“Acting upon Our Religion”: Muslim Women’s Movements and the Remodelling of Islamic Practice in India’. Modern Asian Studies 55(1):40–74.

  • Kaur, Lakshmi Devi, Manvinder. 2019. ‘Purdah or Ghunghat, a Powerful Means to Control Women: A Study of Rural Muslim and Non-Muslim Women in Western Uttar Pradesh, India - Lakshmi Devi, Manvinder Kaur, 2019’. Indian Journal of Gender Studies.

  • Khan, Sameera. 2007. ‘Negotiating the Mohalla: Exclusion, Identity and Muslim Women in Mumbai’. Economic and Political Weekly 42(17):1527–33.

  • Kirmani, Nida. 2013. Questioning the ‘Muslim Woman’: Identity and Insecurity in an Urban Indian Locality. 1st edition. London: Routledge India.

  • Kumar, Megha. 2016. Communalism and Sexual Violence in India: The Politics of Gender, Ethnicity and Conflict. First Edition. London; New York, NY: I.B.Tauris.

  • Lateef, Shahida. 1990. Muslim Women in India: Political and Private Realities, 1890s-1980s. Zed Books.

  • Lemons, Katherine. 2010. ‘At the Margins of Law: Adjudicating Muslim Families in Contemporary Delhi’. UC Berkeley.

  • Lindberg, Anna. 2009. ‘Islamisation, Modernisation, or Globalisation? Changed Gender Relations among South Indian Muslims’. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 32(1):86–109.

  • Mullally, Siobhan. 2004. ‘Feminism and Multicultural Dilemmas in India: Revisiting the Shah Bano Case’. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 24(4):671–92.

  • Niaz, Noorjehan Safia, and Zakia Soman. 2015. ‘Muslim Women’s Views on Muslim Personal Law (No. of Pages: 4)’. Economic & Political Weekly, December 19.

  • Parashar, Archana. 1992. Women and Family Law Reform in India: Uniform Civil Code and Gender Equality. 1st edition. Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd.

  • Robinson, Rowena. 2010. ‘Boundary Battles: Muslim Women and Community Identity in the Aftermath of Violence’. Women’s Studies International Forum 33(4):365–73.

  • Tschalaer, Mengia Hong. 2017. Muslim Women’s Quest for Justice: Gender, Law and Activism in India. Cambridge University Press.

  • Vatuk, Sylvia. 2008. ‘Islamic Feminism in India: Indian Muslim Women Activists and the Reform of Muslim Personal Law’. Modern Asian Studies 42(2/3):489–518.

  • Vatuk, Sylvia. 2013. ‘The “Women’s Court” in India: An Alternative Dispute Resolution Body for Women in Distress’. The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law 45(1):76–103.

Feminist Activism

  • Khan, Ayesha (2018) ‘The Women's Movement in Pakistan: Activism, Islam and Democracy” (IB Tauris).

  • Chowdhury, Elora Halim. 2011. Transnationalism Reversed: Women Organizing against Gendered Violence in Bangladesh. Albany: SUNY Press.

  • Kabeer, Naila, and Munshi Sulaiman. 2015. ‘Assessing the Impact of Social Mobilization: Nijera Kori and the Construction of Collective Capabilities in Rural Bangladesh’. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 16(1):47–68.

  • Narain, Vrinda. 2008. Reclaiming the Nation: Muslim Women and the Law in India. Toronto Ont. ; Buffalo [N.Y.]: University of Toronto Press.

  • Tschalaer, Mengia Hong. 2017. Muslim Women’s Quest for Justice: Gender, Law and Activism in India. Cambridge University Press.

Female Political Representation 

Gender relations, broadly

Latin America & the Caribbean


Historical overviews

O’Connor, Erin E. 2014. Mothers Making Latin America: Gender, Households, and Politics Since 1825. Wiley

Chant, Sylvia, and Nikki Craske. 2002. Gender in Latin America. London: Latin America Bureau.

Dore, Elizabeth, and Maxine Molyneux. 2000. Hidden Histories of Gender and the State in Latin America. Duke University Press.


Kinship & the family

Carlos, Manuel L., and Lois Sellers. 1972. ‘Family, Kinship Structure, and Modernization in Latin America. Latin American Research Review 7(2): 95–124.

Collier, George A. 1978. The Determinants of Highland Maya Kinship’. Journal of Family History 3(4): 439–53.

De Vos, Susan M. 1995. Household Composition in Latin America. Springer Science

Deere, Carmen Diana. 1978. ‘The Differentiation of the Peasantry and Family Structure: A Peruvian Case Study’. Journal of Family History 3(4): 422–38.

Kuznesof, Elizabeth Anne. 1989. The History of the Family in Latin America: A Critique of Recent Work’ eds. Diana Balmori et al. Latin American Research Review 24(2): 168–86.

Kuznesof, Elizabeth Anne. 2018. Household Economy And Urban Development: Sao Paulo 1765-1836. Routledge.

Kuznesof, Elizabeth, and Robert Oppenheimer. 1985. ‘The Family and Society in Nineteenth-Century Latin America: An Historiographical Introduction. Journal of Family History 10(3): 215–34.

Wainerman, Catalina H. 1978. ‘Family Relations in Argentina: Diachrony and Synchrony’: Journal of Family History 3(4): 410–421. (March 9, 2020).

Nazzari, Muriel. 1990. ‘Parents and Daughters: Change in the Practice of Dowry in São Paulo (1600-1770)’. Hispanic American Historical Review 70(4): 639–65.

Socolow, Susan Migden. 2015. The Women of Colonial Latin America. CUP

Safa, Helen. 2005. ‘The Matrifocal Family and Patriarchal Ideology in Cuba and the Caribbean’. Journal of Latin American Anthropology 10(2): 314–38.


Kampwirth, Karen. 2002. Women and Guerrilla Movements: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chiapas, Cuba. Penn State Press.

Lutjens, Sheryl L. 1995. ‘Reading Between the Lines: Women, the State, and Rectification in Cuba. Latin American Perspectives 22(2): 100–124.

Viterna, Jocelyn. 2013. Women in War: The Micro-Processes of Mobilization in El Salvador. OUP


The Cuban Revolution

Andaya, Elise. 2014. Conceiving Cuba: Reproduction, Women, and the State in the Post-Soviet Era. Rutgers UP.

Hynson, Rachel. 2020. Laboring for the State: Women, Family, and Work in Revolutionary Cuba, 1959–1971. CUP

Johanna I. Moya Fábregas. 2010. ‘The Cuban Woman’s Revolutionary Experience: Patriarchal Culture and the State’s Gender Ideology, 1950–1976. Journal of Women’s History 22(1): 61–84.

Toro-Morn, Maura I., Anne R. Roschelle, and Elisa Facio. 2002. Gender, Work, and Family in Cuba: The Challenges of the Special Period’. Journal of Developing Societies 18(2–3): 32–58. 

Safa, Helen. 2009. ‘Hierarchies and Household Change in Postrevolutionary Cuba’. Latin American Perspectives 36(1): 42–52.

Rural economies

Deere, Carmen Diana. 1982. ‘The Division of Labor by Sex in Agriculture: A Peruvian Case Study’. Economic Development and Cultural Change 30(4): 795–811.

Deere, Carmen Diana. 1995. What Difference Does Gender Make? Rethinking Peasant Studies’. Feminist Economics 1(1): 53–72.

Deere, Carmen Diana. 2005. The Feminization of Agriculture? Economic Restructuring in Rural Latin America | UNRISD.

Deere, Carmen Diana. 2017. Women’s Land Rights, Rural Social Movements, and the State in the 21st-Century Latin American Agrarian Reforms. Journal of Agrarian Change 17(2): 258–78.

Katz, Elizabeth. 2003. The Changing Role of Women in the Rural Economies of Latin America’. FAO.


Rural-urban migration

Brumer, Anita. 2008. ‘Gender Relations in Family-Farm Agriculture and Rural-Urban Migration in Brazil’. Latin American Perspectives 35(6): 11–28.

Lawson, Victoria A. 1998. ‘Hierarchical Households and Gendered Migration in Latin America: Feminist Extensions to Migration Research. Progress in Human Geography 22(1): 39–53.

Radcliffe, Sarah A. 1991. ‘The Role of Gender in Peasant Migration: Conceptual Issues from the Peruvian Andes’. Review of Radical Political Economics 23(3–4): 129–47.


Falling fertility

Guzmán, José Miguel. 1991. The Onset of Fertility Decline in Latin America. | ECLAC

Martin, Teresa Castro, and Fatima Juarez. 1995. ‘The Impact of Women’s Education on Fertility In Latin America: Searching for Explanations’. International Family Planning Perspectives 21(2): 52–80.

Potter, Joseph E., Carl P. Schmertmann, Renato M. Assunção, and Suzana M. Cavenaghi. 2010. Mapping the Timing, Pace, and Scale of the Fertility Transition in Brazil’. Population and Development Review 36(2): 283–307.

Rosero-Bixby, Luis, Teresa Castro-Martín, and Teresa Martín-García. 2009. ‘Is Latin America Starting to Retreat from Early and Universal Childbearing?’ Demographic Research 20: 169–94.

Social policy

Molyneux, Maxine. 2002. ‘Gender and the Silences of Social Capital: Lessons from Latin America’. Development and Change 33(2): 167–88.Molyneux, Maxine. 2006. ‘Mothers at the Service of the New Poverty Agenda: Progresa/Oportunidades, Mexico’s Conditional Transfer Programme. Social Policy & Administration 40(4): 425–49.


Rising female employment

Arceo-Gomez, Eva, and Raymundo Campos-Vazquez. 2010. Labor Supply of Married Women in Mexico: 1990-2000. El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos. Serie documentos de trabajo del Centro de Estudios Económicos.

Busso, Matias, and Dario Romero Fonesca. 2015. ‘Determinants of Female Labor  Force Participation. In Bridging Gender Gaps? The Rise and Deceleration of Female Labor Force Participation in Latin America.

Chioda, Laura. 2016. Work and Family: Latin American and Caribbean Women in Search of a New Balance. World Bank.

Filgueira, Fernando, and Juliana Martínez Franzoni. 2017. ‘The Divergence in Women’s Economic Empowerment: Class and Gender under the Pink Tide’. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 24(4): 370–98.

Gómez-Galvarriato, Aurora, and Lucía Madrigal. 2016. ‘Women’s Labor Force Participation in Mexico During the 20th Century: Childbearing and Career Decisions’. In Gender Inequalities and Development in Latin America During the Twentieth Century, eds. María Magdalena Camou, Silvana Maubrigades, and Rosemary Thorp. Routledge.

Raynolds, Laura T. 1998. ‘Harnessing Women’s Work: Restructuring Agricultural and Industrial Labor Forces in the Dominican Republic’. Economic Geography 74(2):

Youssef, Nadia H. 1972. ‘Differential Labor Force Participation of Women in Latin American and Middle Eastern Countries: The Influence of Family Characteristics’. Social Forces 51(2): 135–53.

Serrano, Joaquín, Leonardo Gasparini, Mariana Marchionni, and Pablo Glüzmann. 2020. ‘Economic Cycle and Deceleration of Female Labor Force Participation in Latin America. IDB working paper.

Chant, Sylvia. 1991. Women and Survival in Mexican Cities: Perspectives on Gender, Labour Markets and Low-Income Households. Manchester UP.

Rocha, Mercedes González de la. 2007. The Construction of the Myth of Survival’. Development and Change 38(1): 45–66.

Gaddis, Isis, and Janneke Pieters. 2012. Trade Liberalization and Female Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Brazil. Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

Mendez, Jennifer Bickham. 2005. From the Revolution to the Maquiladoras: Gender, Labor, and Globalization in Nicaragua. Duke University Press.

Pieters, Janneke. 2018. ‘Trade Liberalization and Gender Inequality. IZA World of Labor.

Safa, Helen I. 1995. The Myth Of The Male Breadwinner: Women And Industrialization In The Caribbean. Westview Press.

Salzinger, Leslie. 2003. Genders in Production. UC Press.


Alvarez, Sonia E. 1990. Engendering Democracy in Brazil: Women’s Movements in Transition Politics. Princeton

Anderson, Cora Fernández. 2020. Fighting for Abortion Rights in Latin America: Social Movements, State Allies and Institutions. Routledge.

Baldez, Lisa. 2010. Why Women Protest: Women’s Movements in Chile. CUP.

Blofield, Merike, and Christina Ewig. 2017. The Left Turn and Abortion Politics in Latin America’. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 24(4): 481–510.

Blofield, Merike. 2012. Care Work and Class: Domestic Workers’ Struggle for Equal Rights in Latin America. Pennsylvania State University Press.

Borland, Elizabeth, and Barbara Sutton. 2007. ‘Quotidian Disruption and Women’s Activism in Times of Crisis, Argentina 2002-2003’. Gender & Society 21(5): 700–722.

Chaney, Elsa, and Mary Garcia Castro. 1991. Muchachas No More: Household Workers in Latin America and the Caribbean. Temple UP

Corcoran-Nantes, Yvonne. 2003. Female Consciousness or Feminist Consciousness?: Women’s Consciousness Raising in Community-Based Struggles in Brazil’. In Feminist Theory Reader, Routledge, 126–37.

Díez, Jordi. 2013. ‘Explaining Policy Outcomes: The Adoption of Same-Sex Unions in Buenos Aires and Mexico City’. Comparative Political Studies 46(2): 212–35.

Drogus, Carol Ann, and Hannah Stewart-Gambino. 2007. Activist Faith. Penn State UP

Fuentes, María Luisa Sánchez, Jennifer Paine, and Brook Elliott-Buettner. 2008. The Decriminalisation of Abortion in Mexico City: How Did Abortion Rights Become a Political Priority?’ Gender & Development 16(2): 345–60.

Htun, Mala Nani. 2003. Sex and the State: Abortion, Divorce, and the Family Under Latin American Dictatorships and Democracies. CUP

Lopreite, Debora. 2014. ‘Explaining Policy Outcomes in Federal Contexts: The Politics of Reproductive Rights in Argentina and Mexico’. Bulletin of Latin American Research 33(4): 389–404.

Roggeband, Conny. 2016. Ending Violence against Women in Latin America: Feminist Norm Setting in a Multilevel Context’. Politics & Gender 12(1): 143–67.

Rousseau, Stéphanie, and Anahi Morales Hudon. 2017. Indigenous Women’s Movements in Latin America: Gender and Ethnicity in Peru, Mexico, and Bolivia. Palgrave.

Safa, Helen Icken. 1990. ‘Women’s Social Movements In Latin America. Gender & Society 4(3): 354–69.

Sardenberg, Cecília M. B. 2012. ‘Negotiating Culture in the Promotion of Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Latin America’. IDS Working Papers 2012(407): 1–44.

Schroeder, Kathleen. 2006. ‘A Feminist Examination of Community Kitchens in Peru and Bolivia’. Gender, Place & Culture 13(6): 663–68.

Sutton, Barbara. 2020. ‘Intergenerational Encounters in the Struggle for Abortion Rights in Argentina. Women’s Studies International Forum 82: 102392.


Quotas & political representation

Funk, Kendall D, Magda Hinojosa, and Jennifer M Piscopo. 2017. ‘Still Left Behind: Gender, Political Parties, and Latin America’s Pink Tide’. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 24(4): 399–424.

Piatti-Crocker, Adriana. 2019. ‘The Diffusion of Gender Policy in Latin America: From Quotas to Parity’. Journal of International Women’s Studies 20(6): 44–59..

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2015. ‘States as Gender Equality Activists: The Evolution of Quota Laws in Latin America’. Latin American Politics and Society 57(3): 27–49.

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2016. ‘Democracy as Gender Balance: The Shift from Quotas to Parity in Latin America. Politics, Groups, and Identities 4(2): 214–30.

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2020. ‘When Do Quotas in Politics Work? Latin America Offers Lessons.’ Americas Quarterly.

Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. 2010. Political Power and Women’s Representation in Latin America. OUP

Htun, Mala. 2015. Inclusion without Representation in Latin America. CUP


Persistent Inequalities

Rogers, Ashley. 2020. ‘“But the Law Won’t Help Us”: Challenges of Mobilizing Law 348 to Address Violence Against Women in Bolivia’. Violence Against Women 26(12–13): 1471–92

Radcliffe, Sarah A. 2015. ‘Dilemmas of Difference: Indigenous Women and the Limits of Postcolonial Development Policy’.

Middle East & North Africa


Women's movements 

Htun, Mala, and S. Laurel Weldon. 2015. ‘Religious Power, the State, Women’s Rights, and Family Law’. Politics & Gender 11(3):451–77.

Kandiyoti, Deniz. 2019. ‘Against All Odds:: The Resilience and Fragility of Women’s Gender Activism in Turkey’. Pp. 80–100 in Gender, Governance and Islam, edited by D. Kandiyoti, N. Al-Ali, and K. S. Poots. Edinburgh University Press.

Mili, Amel. 2018. ‘Citizenship and Gender Equality in the Cradle of the Arab Spring’. Pp. 27–52 in Arab Women’s Activism and Socio-Political Transformation Unfinished Gendered Revolutions, edited by S. Khamis and A. Mili. London: Palgrave.

Mohammadi, Majid. 2019. The Iranian Reform Movement: Civil and Constitutional Rights in Suspension. Palgrave Macmillan.

Tekil, Decile Burcu. 2020. ‘Women’s Movement in Iran: A Comparative Study of the Reformist Era and the Green Movement’. Thesis. Middle East Technical University.

Tripp, Aili Mari. 2019. Seeking Legitimacy: Why Arab Autocracies Adopt Women’s Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ün, Marella Bodur. 2019. ‘Contesting Global Gender Equality Norms: The Case of Turkey’. Review of International Studies 45(5):828–47.

Sub-Saharan Africa



Berry, Marie E. 2015. ‘From Violence to Mobilization: Women, War, and Threat in Rwanda*’. Mobilization: An International Quarterly 20(2):135–56.

Burnet, Jennie E. 2008. ‘Gender Balance and the Meanings of Women in Governance in Post-Genocide Rwanda’. African Affairs 107(428):361–86.

Burnet, Jennie E. 2011. ‘Women Have Found Respect: Gender Quotas, Symbolic Representation, and Female Empowerment in Rwanda’. Politics & Gender 7(3):303–34.

Hughes, Melanie M., and Aili Mari Tripp. 2015. ‘Civil War and Trajectories of Change in Women’s Political Representation in Africa, 1985–2010’. Social Forces 93(4):1513–40.

Cities as catalysts of social change

Evans, Alice. 2018. ‘Cities as Catalysts of Gendered Social Change? Reflections from Zambia’. Annals of the American Association of Geographers 108(4):1096–1114.Cambri

Political representation

Burnet, Jennie E. 2008. ‘Gender Balance and the Meanings of Women in Governance in Post-Genocide Rwanda’. African Affairs 107(428):361–86.

Burnet, Jennie E. 2011. ‘Women Have Found Respect: Gender Quotas, Symbolic Representation, and Female Empowerment in Rwanda’. Politics & Gender 7(3):303–34.

Bush, Sarah Sunn. 2011. ‘International Politics and the Spread of Quotas for Women in Legislatures’. International Organization 65(1):103–37.

Devlin, Claire, and Robert Elgie. 2008. ‘The Effect of Increased Women’s Representation in Parliament: The Case of Rwanda’. Parliamentary Affairs 61(2):237–54.

Edgell, Amanda B. 2017. ‘Foreign Aid, Democracy, and Gender Quota Laws’. Democratization 24(6):1103–41.

Hughes, Melanie M., and Aili Mari Tripp. 2015. ‘Civil War and Trajectories of Change in Women’s Political Representation in Africa, 1985–2010’. Social Forces 93(4):1513–40.

Kang, Alice J., and Aili Mari Tripp. 2018. ‘Coalitions Matter: Citizenship, Women, and Quota Adoption in Africa’. Perspectives on Politics 16(1):73–91.

Tripp, Aili Mari. 2015. Women and Power in Postconflict Africa. CUP.

Europe & North America

South East Asia

What's missing?

Get in touch, let me know, & I'll gladly update

If you're interested in economic history and/or comparative development,

you will relish my partner's impeccably well-researched, analytically rigorous, and occasionally hilarious blog: 

The above list on global gender history was inspired by his Economic History book recommendations.